Scrapbooking is a method for preserving personal and family history in the form of a scrapbook. Typical memorabilia include photographs, printed media, and artwork. Scrapbook albums are often decorated and frequently contain extensive journaling. Scrapbooking is a widely practiced pastime in the United States.
Beginning in the 15th century, commonplace books, popular in England, emerged as a way to compile information that included recipes, quotations, letters, poems and more. Each commonplace book was unique to its creator's particular interests. Friendship albums became popular in the 16th century. These albums were used much like modern day yearbooks, where friends or patrons would enter their names, titles and short texts or illustrations at the request of the album's owner. These albums were often created as souvenirs of European tours and would contain local memorabilia including coats of arms or works of art commissioned by local artisans. Starting in 1570, it became fashionable to incorporate colored plates depicting popular scenes such as Venetian costumes or Carnival scenes. These provided affordable options as compared to original works and, as such, these plates were not sold to commemorate or document a specific event, but specifically as embellishments for albums. In 1775, James Granger published a history of England with several blank pages at the end of the book. The pages were designed to allow the book's owner to personalize the book with his own memorabilia. The practice of leaving pages to personalize at the end of books became known as grangerizing. Additionally, friendship albums and school yearbooks afforded girls in the 18th and 19th centuries an outlet through which to share their literary skills, and allowed girls an opportunity to document their own personalized historical record previously not readily available to them.
Attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things. Attention has also been referred to as the allocation of processing resources.
Examples include listening carefully to what someone is saying while ignoring other conversations in a room (the cocktail party effect) or listening to a cell phone conversation while driving a car. Attention is one of the most intensely studied topics within psychology and cognitive neuroscience.
In 1890, William James, in his textbook Principles of Psychology, remarked:
“ Everyone knows what attention is. It is the taking possession by the mind, in clear and vivid form, of one out of what seem several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought. Focalization, concentration, of consciousness are of its essence. It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others, and is a condition which has a real opposite in the confused, dazed, scatterbrained state which in French is called distraction, and Zerstreutheit in German. ”
Attention remains a major area of investigation within education, psychology and neuroscience. Areas of active investigation involve determining the source of the signals that generate attention, the effects of these signals on the tuning properties of sensory neurons, and the relationship between attention and other cognitive processes like working memory and vigilance. A relatively new body of research is investigating the phenomenon of traumatic brain injuries and their effects on attention.
Die Sonne (von ahd. Sunna, lateinisch Sol, altgriechisch Helios) ist der Stern im Zentrum des Sonnensystems. Umgangssprachlich wird der Individualname unseres Zentralgestirns auch für andere Sterne verwendet („Sonnen“).
Trotz ihrer Entfernung von durchschnittlich 150 Millionen Kilometern (siehe Erdbahn) ist die Sonne für das Leben auf der Erde von fundamentaler Bedeutung. Viele wichtige Prozesse auf der Erdoberfläche, wie das Klima und das Leben selbst, werden durch die Strahlungsenergie der Sonne ermöglicht. So stammen etwa 99,98 % des gesamten Energiebeitrags zum Erdklima von der Sonne – der winzige Rest wird aus geothermalen Quellen gespeist. Auch die Gezeiten gehen zu einem Drittel auf die Schwerkraft der Sonne zurück.
Innerhalb des Milchstraßensystems ist die Sonne ein „durchschnittlicher“, zu den Gelben Zwergen gehöriger Stern. Ihr astronomisches Zeichen ist ☉.